1. In a small bowl combine 1/4 cup sugar and cinnamon in a shallow dish and set aside.
2. In a second bowl, whisk flour, cream of tartar, baking soda, and salt together in a medium bowl.
3. Using a stand mixer, beat butter and remaining 1 1/2 cups sugar together on medium speed until light and fluffy, 3 to 6 minutes. Beat in eggs, one at a time, incorporated, about 30 seconds, scraping down bowl as needed.
4. Reduce speed to low and slowly add flour mixture until combined, about 30 seconds. Add your diced apples at this time and give your dough a couple final stirs to ensure apple pieces are mixed in evenly.
5. Chill dough for at least 30 minutes, up to keeping it overnight. While the dough is chilling, prepare your caramels by cutting each caramel into quarters.
6. When you are just about to ready to bake and dough is just about chilled long enough preheat your oven to 375 degrees F. Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper. When dough is ready, scoop 1 tablespoon of dough and press 2 caramel bits (or more, like I said if I did this again I'd put all of caramel bits in!) in the center and then scoop another tablespoon of dough over it to cover up the caramel bits. Roll into a ball, and roll in the cinnamon sugar mixture to coat and set on prepared baking sheet spaced 2 inches apart, repeat with remaining dough balls.
7. Bake 1 sheet at a time (keep the other tray chilled!) until the edges of the cookies are set and just beginning to brown but centers are soft and puffy (my oven took about 10 minutes, yours may take up to 12 minutes). Your cookies may look raw between the craks and seem underdone.
8. Let the cookies cool on baking sheet for 10 minutes, and transfer to a wire rack and let cool to room temperature.